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Reno DD-303 - Historia

Reno DD-303 - Historia


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Reno DD-303

Reno (DD-303: dp. 1,308; 1. 314'4 "; b. 30'11", dr. 9'10 ", s. 33 kcpl. 122; a. 4 4", 1 3 ", 12 21 "tt .; cl. Clemson) El primer Reno fue establecido por Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco, California, el 4 de julio de 1918, lanzado el 22 de enero de 1919; patrocinado por la señorita Kathryn Baldwin Anderson; y comisionado el 23 de julio de 1920. Inscrito en la Flota del Pacífico, Reno operó a lo largo de la costa oeste hasta enero de 1921, cuando se unió a otras unidades de la flota en un crucero a Valparaíso, Chile. Reanudando las operaciones de la costa oeste a su regreso, varió entre Washington y Baja California, con viajes ocasionales a Hawai o la Zona del Canal.En abril de 1927 llegó tan al este como Guantánamo, Cuba, y en julio de ese año estuvo en Prinee Rupert, Columbia Británica, para participar en las celebraciones del Jubileo de Diamante Canadiense. Retirada en San Diego el 18 de enero de 1930, Reno fue eliminada de la lista de la Marina el 8 de julio de 1930. Fue eliminada en 1931, de acuerdo con los términos del Tratado de Londres que limitaba los servicios navales. armamento.


USS Reno (CL 96)

El USS RENO fue uno de los cruceros ligeros de la clase OAKLAND y el segundo barco de la Armada en llevar ese nombre. Sin embargo, el primer RENO (DD 303) fue nombrado en honor a Walter E. Reno, mientras que CL 96 fue nombrado en honor a la ciudad de Nevada. Desarmado en Bremerton, Washington, en noviembre de 1946, el RENO fue reclasificado CLAA 96 en marzo de 1949 pero permaneció en la Flota de Reserva del Pacífico hasta que fue eliminado de la lista de la Marina en marzo de 1959. Fue vendida para su desguace en marzo de 1962.

Características generales: Otorgado: 1940
Quilla colocada: 1 de agosto de 1941
Botado: 23 de diciembre de 1942
Asignado: 28 de diciembre de 1943
Retirado: 4 de noviembre de 1946
Constructor: Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, California.
Sistema de propulsión: turbinas con engranajes, 75.000 shp
Hélices: dos
Longitud: 541,7 pies (165,1 metros)
Manga: 53,15 pies (16,2 metros)
Calado: 20,7 pies (6,3 metros)
Desplazamiento: aprox. 8.340 toneladas a plena carga
Velocidad: 32,5 nudos
Aeronaves: ninguna
Armamento: doce cañones de 12,7 cm 5 pulgadas / calibre 38 en seis montajes gemelos, cañones de 16 x 40 mm, cañones de 16 x 20 mm, ocho tubos de torpedo
Tripulación: 63 oficiales y 785 alistados

Esta sección contiene los nombres de los marineros que sirvieron a bordo del USS RENO. No es una lista oficial, pero contiene los nombres de los marineros que enviaron su información.

El USS RENO fue establecido por Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, California, el 1 de agosto de 1941, lanzado el 23 de diciembre de 1942 patrocinado por la Sra. August C. Frohlich y encargado el 28 de diciembre de 1943, el Capitán Ralph C. Alexander al mando.

Tras el shakedown en San Diego, RENO partió de San Francisco, el 14 de abril de 1944, para unirse a la Quinta Flota. Como unidad activa en la Task Force 58 del Vicealmirante Marc A. Mitscher, entró en contacto por primera vez con el enemigo apoyando ataques aéreos contra la isla Marcus del 19 al 20 de mayo. Tres días después, también apoyó las huelgas en Wake Island.

Durante los meses de junio y julio, RENO se unió a los portaaviones rápidos en ataques sorpresa contra Saipan, el 11 de junio, la isla Pagan, del 12 al 13 de junio, y contra las islas Volcán y Bonin - Iwo Jima, Haha Jima y Chichi Jima - el 15 -16 de junio. Tres días después, ayudó a repeler un intento de fuerza de portaaviones japonesa a gran escala para derrotar la invasión aliada de Saipan en la Batalla del Mar de Filipinas.

Del 20 de junio al 8 de julio, RENO se unió a las operaciones que cubrían la captura de Saipán, luego cubrió los desembarcos en Guam del 17 al 24 de julio y 2 días después, participó en los ataques contra las islas Palau del 26 al 29. Girando hacia el norte nuevamente, se realizó un ataque final en las islas Bonin del 4 al 5 de agosto y el 7 de septiembre el grupo de trabajo regresó a Palaus.

Continuando hacia el oeste, RENO participó en incursiones contra Mindanao y las islas Filipinas adyacentes del 9 al 13 de septiembre, apoyó la invasión de Palau del 15 al 20 de septiembre, y los días 21 y 22, apoyó los ataques contra Manila y sus alrededores. Al atacar a Nansei Shoto el 8 de octubre, RENO, con TF 38, se acercó más a las islas de origen de Japón que cualquier otra unidad importante de la Flota de los EE. UU.

Durante el ataque de 3 días en Formosa del 12 al 14 de octubre, RENO derribó seis aviones enemigos. En el punto álgido de la batalla, un avión torpedero se estrelló y explotó en la cubierta principal de popa del RENO. Aunque la Torreta Seis quedó parcialmente incapacitada por la explosión, el capitán de la torreta logró mantener su fuego contra los aviones y barcos atacantes.

El 24 de octubre, 4 días después de la invasión inicial de Leyte, mientras apoyaba los ataques aéreos contra el área de Luzón, TF 38 fue sometido a un ataque aéreo a gran escala por aviones terrestres de Clark Field. El vehículo ligero PRINCETON (CVL 23) fue golpeado y obligado a retirarse del grupo de trabajo. RENO, asignada para ayudar a combatir sus incendios y al personal de rescate, se acercó cinco veces pero no pudo quedarse debido al intenso calor y el humo. Mientras RENO evacuaba a los hombres heridos y trataba de controlar los incendios, la cubierta de vuelo inclinada de PRINCETON aplastó una de las monturas de 40 mm de Reno. Los esfuerzos para salvar al portaaviones continuaron pero, después de que explotó el área de estiba de ojivas de torpedos de PRINCETON, se ordenó a RENO que la hundiera. El 25 de octubre, habiéndose reincorporado al grupo de trabajo, RENO se dirigió hacia el norte para entablar combate con el grupo de trabajo del norte de Japón que se cerró para la Batalla de Cabo Engaño, el último enfrentamiento en la Batalla del Golfo de Leyte.

En la noche del 3 de noviembre, frente al estrecho de San Bernardino, el submarino japonés I-41 torpedeó el RENO en el costado de babor. Remolcado 1.500 millas a Ulithi para reparaciones temporales, luego navegó por sus propios medios a Charleston, donde ingresó al Navy Yard el 22 de marzo para reparaciones. Emergiendo 7 meses después, viajó a Texas, luego regresó a Charleston para la adición de espacios para literas. Se presentó para el servicio de "Alfombra Mágica" e hizo dos viajes a Le Havre, Francia, y regresó con las tropas del Ejército.

A principios de 1946, RENO partió hacia Port Angeles, Washington, donde fue dado de baja el 4 de noviembre de 1946 y entró en la Flota de Reserva del Pacífico, atracada en Bremerton. Reclasificada CLAA 96, el 18 de marzo de 1949, permaneció en Bremerton hasta que su nombre fue eliminado de la lista de la Marina el 1 de marzo de 1959 y su casco fue vendido, el 22 de marzo de 1962, a Coal Export Co., Nueva York.


Reno DD-303 - Historia

El USS Reno, un destructor de la clase Clemson de 1190 toneladas construido en San Francisco, California, fue comisionado en julio de 1920. Pasó la mayor parte de su carrera operando a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico de EE. UU., Haciendo cruceros ocasionales tan lejos como Chile, Hawai y el Caribe y Atlántico occidental para participar en las maniobras de la flota estadounidense. Después de menos de una década de servicio activo, Reno fue dado de baja en enero de 1930. Fue desguazada en 1931.

El USS Reno fue nombrado en honor al teniente comandante Walter E. Reno (1881-1917), quien perdió la vida mientras comandaba el USS Chauncey (Destructor # 3) en noviembre de 1917.

Esta página presenta, o proporciona enlaces a, todas las vistas que tenemos relacionadas con el USS Reno (DD-303).

Si desea reproducciones de mayor resolución que las imágenes digitales presentadas aquí, consulte: & quot Cómo obtener reproducciones fotográficas & quot.

Haga clic en la fotografía pequeña para abrir una vista más grande de la misma imagen.

Anclado en el puerto de San Diego, California, alrededor de 1920.
Fotografiado por Pier Studio, San Diego.

Cortesía de ESKC Joseph L. Aguillard, USNR, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 73 KB, 740 x 610 píxeles

En San Diego, California, alrededor de 1920.
Fotografiado por Pier Studio, San Diego.

Cortesía de ESKC Joseph L. Aguillard, USNR, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 75 KB, 740 x 510 píxeles

Anclado, a principios de la década de 1920.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 84 KB, 740 x 610 píxeles

Fotografiado alrededor de 1923-1930.

Fotografía oficial de la Marina de los Estados Unidos, ahora en las colecciones de los Archivos Nacionales.

Imagen en línea: 57KB 740 x 600 píxeles

Las reproducciones de esta imagen también pueden estar disponibles a través del sistema de reproducción fotográfica de los Archivos Nacionales.

En marcha en Puget Sound, Washington, mientras se dirigía a Puget Sound Navy Yard, julio de 1927.
Fotografiado por Martin.

Fotografía oficial de la Marina de los EE. UU., De las colecciones del Centro Histórico Naval.

Imagen en línea: 85 KB 740 x 610 píxeles

En marcha durante la década de 1920.

Donación del Teniente Gustave Freret, USN (Retirado), 1972.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 44 KB, 740 x 300 píxeles

Haciendo humo durante los ejercicios, alrededor de 1923-1930.
El barco en la distancia parece ser el USS Thompson (DD-305).

Cortesía de Donald M. McPherson, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 61KB 740 x 475 píxeles

Fotografiado alrededor de 1923-1930.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 73 KB, 740 x 515 píxeles

Despojado y en espera de desguace, en Alameda, California, el 22 de marzo de 1931.
Tenga en cuenta su trasero asqueroso. Se han cortado las protecciones de la hélice y los soportes del eje de la hélice.

Cortesía de Donald M. McPherson, 1970.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 57KB 740 x 490 píxeles

La siguiente fotografía muestra un barco que PUEDE ser USS Reno (DD-303):

Destructor colocando una cortina de humo, circa 1921

Este barco es USS Stoddert (DD-302) o USS Reno (DD-303).

Cortesía de Donald M. McPherson, 1977.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 83 KB 740 x 450 píxeles

Además de las imágenes presentadas arriba, los Archivos Nacionales parecen tener al menos otra vista del USS Reno (DD-303). La siguiente lista presenta esta imagen:

La imagen que se muestra a continuación NO está en las colecciones del Centro Histórico Naval.
NO intente obtenerlo utilizando los procedimientos descritos en nuestra página & quotCómo obtener reproducciones fotográficas & quot.

Las reproducciones de esta imagen deben estar disponibles a través del sistema de reproducción fotográfica del Archivo Nacional para fotografías que no estén en poder del Centro Histórico Naval.


Reno DD-303 - Historia

Esta página presenta vistas adicionales relacionadas con USS Reno (DD-303).

Si desea reproducciones de mayor resolución que las imágenes digitales presentadas aquí, consulte: & quot Cómo obtener reproducciones fotográficas & quot.

Haga clic en la fotografía pequeña para abrir una vista más grande de la misma imagen.

¡Precaución! El USS Reno (DD-303) se ve de lejos, parcialmente y / o al fondo en muchas de las fotografías que se presentan a continuación. Examine las imágenes detenidamente y lea las leyendas con atención antes de seleccionar vistas para representarla.

Destructor División TREINTA Y TRES

Amarrados juntos frente a San Diego, California, el 16 de abril de 1921.
Fotografiado por Pier Studio, San Diego.
Estos barcos son (de izquierda a derecha):
USS Stoddert (DD-302)
USS Paul Hamilton (DD-307)
USS Reno (DD-303)
USS Kennedy (DD-306)
USS Thompson (DD-305) y
USS Farquhar (DD-304)

Cortesía de ESKC Joseph L. Aguillard, USNR, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 75 KB 740 x 480 píxeles

Destructor División TREINTA Y TRES

Amarrado frente a San Diego, California.
Probablemente fotografiado por Pier Studio, San Diego, el 16 de abril de 1921.
Estos barcos son (de izquierda a derecha):
USS Stoddert (DD-302)
USS Paul Hamilton (DD-307)
USS Reno (DD-303)
USS Kennedy (DD-306)
USS Thompson (DD-305) y
USS Farquhar (DD-304)

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 75 KB, 740 x 600 píxeles

USS Kanawha (AO-1) con trece destructores al costado, frente a San Diego, California, a principios de la década de 1920.
Fotografiado por Bunnell, 414 E Street, San Diego.
Los barcos presentes se identifican en la foto n. ° NH 98029 (leyenda completa).
Colección del jefe de intendencia John Harold, USN.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 86KB 740 x 465 píxeles

Con doce destructores amarrados al costado, a principios de la década de 1920. Los barcos presentes incluyen (de izquierda a derecha):
USS Jacob Jones (DD-130)
USS Casco (DD-330)
USS Thompson (DD-305)
USS Corry (DD-334)
USS Kennedy (DD-306)
USS Reno (DD-303)
USS Cuyama (AO-3
USS Stoddert (DD-302)
USS Yarborough (DD-314)
USS Sloat (DD-316)
USS Litchfield (DD-336)
USS Shubrick (DD-268)
USS Young (DD-312)

Cortesía de la Sra. C.R. DeSpain, 1973. De los álbumes de recortes de Fred M. Butler.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 70 KB, 740 x 490 píxeles

`` Flotas combinadas del Atlántico y el Pacífico en la Bahía de Panamá, 21 de enero de 1921 ''

Sección izquierda (de tres) de una fotografía panorámica tomada por M.C. Mayberry, de Mayberry y Smith, Shreveport, Luisiana. Otras vistas de la serie son las fotografías n. °: NH 86082-B y NH 86082-C.
Entre los barcos presentes en esta imagen se encuentran (de izquierda a derecha): USS Paul Hamilton (DD-307), USS Farquhar (DD-304), USS Simpson (DD-221), USS Thompson (DD-305), USS Parrott (DD-218), USS Reno (DD-303), USS Dorsey (DD-117), USS Dent (DD-116) y USS Waters (DD-115).
Los destructores chilenos están en la distancia central.

Cortesía de la Fundación Histórica Naval, Colección D.H. Criswell.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 47KB 740 x 340 píxeles

En el puerto de San Diego, California, a principios de la década de 1920.
USS Reno (DD-303) está a la distancia correcta, y la proa del USS Paul Hamilton (DD-307) es visible a la izquierda.
Probablemente fotografiado por Pier Studio, San Diego.

Cortesía de ESKC Joseph L. Aguillard, USNR, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 70 KB, 740 x 550 píxeles

Patio de la Marina de Puget Sound, Bremerton, Washington

Destructores y otros barcos en el Navy Yard, 11 de enero de 1922.
Los barcos identificables incluyen (de adelante hacia atrás):
USS McLanahan (DD-264)
USS Thompson (DD-305)
USS Reno (DD-303)
USS Kennedy (DD-306)
USS Nueva York (BB-34) y
USS Texas (BB-35.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 104 KB, 740 x 595 píxeles

En dique seco en New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, Nueva York, alrededor de octubre-noviembre de 1923.
La proa del USS Reno (DD-303) es visible a la derecha.
Tenga en cuenta los bastidores de carga de profundidad de Litchfield y las protecciones de la hélice.

Cortesía de ESKC Joseph L. Aguillard, USNR, 1969.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 89 KB 740 x 455 píxeles

Frente a Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii, a mediados de la década de 1920.
Los destructores presentes incluyen:
USS Farquhar (DD-304), a la izquierda
USS Reno (DD-303), centro
USS William Jones (DD-308), centro derecho
y USS Hull (DD-330).
Fotografiado por Shura Studio, Honolulu.

Cortesía de Charles Sass, 1979.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 61KB 740 x 450 píxeles

Isla Culebra, Puerto Rico

Destructores anclados en la bahía de Culebra, durante la década de 1920.
Los barcos identificables presentes incluyen:
USS Somers (DD-301), a la derecha
USS Reno (DD-303), a la izquierda
USS Henshaw (DD-278), centro izquierdo
USS Flusser (DD-289), más allá de Henshaw
USS Sinclair (DD-275), centro.

Colección del almirante Arleigh A. Burke, USN.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 47KB 740 x 450 píxeles

USS Reno (DD-303) (izquierda)
y
USS Farragut (DD-300) (derecha)

Frente a la costa de una de las islas hawaianas, alrededor de 1925.

Fotografía del álbum de fotos de Albert Chamberlain, donada por el coronel Carl Mahakian, USMCR, 1975.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 66 KB, 740 x 515 píxeles

Vista del Navy Liberty Dock en & quotFrisco & quot, circa 1926.
Los barcos presentes son del USS Melville (AD-2), USS Maryland (BB-46) y USS Reno (DD-303).
Fotografiado por Gustave Freret.

Donación del Teniente Gustave Freret, USN (Retirado), 1972.

Fotografía del Centro Histórico Naval de EE. UU.

Imagen en línea: 98 KB, 740 x 460 píxeles

Otra fotografía relacionada: la proa del USS Reno (DD-303) es visible a distancia en la Foto # NH 77259, una vista de otro sujeto.


Reno DD-303 - Historia

USS Aroostook (CM-3) Historia

UN POCO DE HISTORIA: ". 02DEC30: La licitación de hidroaviones Aroostook (CM-3), una utilidad y dos escuadrones de patrulla de la Flota de Batalla se presentaron al servicio del Comandante Base Force, proporcionando así a ese comando su primera organización de aviación". Http: //www.history.navy.mil/branches/avchr4.htm [02 de enero de 2001]

UN POCO DE HISTORIA : Aroostook (CM-3) ". USS AROOSTOOK (CM 3) atendiendo aviones a fines de la década de 1920. La foto es de los Archivos Nacionales". Contribución de Mahlon K. Miller & # 109 & # 107 & # 119 & # 115 & # 109 & # 105 & # 108 & # 108 & # 101 & # 114 & # 064 & # 099 & # 111 & # 120 & # 046 & # 110 & # 101 & # 116 [19MAR2001]

(Str: dp. 3,800 l. 395'0 "b. 52'2" dr. 16 '(media) s. 20.0 k. Cpl. 313 a. 1 5 ", 2 3", 2 .30-cal. Colt mg. cl. Aroostook)

El segundo Aroostook fue construido originalmente como el vapor de pasajeros Bunker Hill por el astillero William Cramp and Sons en Filadelfia. Fue lanzada el 26 de marzo de 1907 y patrocinada por Miss Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald, hija del alcalde de Boston. Bunker Hill fue inspeccionado por la Armada el 2 de noviembre de 1917 para su posible uso como barco de vapor de pasajeros y carga. Adquirido por la Armada de Eastern Steamship Lines, de Boston, el 12 de noviembre de 1917, Bunke r Hill pasó a llamarse Aroostook en la Orden General No. 343 del 15 de noviembre de 1917, y se le dio el número de identificación (Id. No.) 1256. Aroostook fue comisionado en el Boston Navy Yard el 7 de diciembre de 1917, Comdr. James H. Tomb al mando.

A medida que la tripulación del barco se organizó y reunió, la conversión del barco en un "plantador de minas" avanzó rápidamente. Tras la retirada de la superestructura de madera del antiguo crucero, la tripulación organizada por Comdr. La tumba en "cuadrillas" industriales de remachadores, calafateadores, armadores de barcos y carpinteros se esparció en los espacios disponibles en los talleres de astillero y subsistió en otros barcos, y todo el trabajo en el barco se realizó a pesar de un invierno severo. Al final, su tripulación fue trasladada a una barcaza de hospital cercana donde vivían hasta que pudieran encontrar alojamiento a bordo. Los oficiales del barco, mientras tanto, se establecieron en la superestructura que se había retirado del barco.

Aroostook llevó a cabo una breve redada en la bahía de Massachusetts del 6 al 10 de junio, y llegó al puerto de Boston el 10 de junio de 1918 para cargar minas. Tras trasladarse a las aguas de Cape Cod al día siguiente, zarpó hacia Escocia el 12 de junio, en compañía de Shawmut, el plantador de minas Saranac (Id. No. 1702), y el tierno Black Hawk (Id. No. 2140).

Antes de la navegación de estos barcos, había surgido preocupación por las capacidades de combustible de Aroostook y Shawmut, ya que sus recorridos de prueba abreviados en Provincetown habían revelado que consumían combustible a un ritmo mayor de lo previsto. Ante un retraso indefinido, el Capitán Wat T. Cluverius y Comdr. Roscoe Bulmer ideó un plan para repostar los barcos en el mar desde Black Hawk. Consiguieron suficientes mangueras de aceite para hacerlo, y todos los barcos navegaron en consecuencia.

Ambos repostajes en el mar, el primero considerado una "empresa novedosa" y realizado a pesar de un vendaval, se llevaron a cabo con éxito y los barcos llegaron sin más incidentes. Aroostook llegó a su destino Cromarty Firth, el 28 de junio. Se dirigió a los campos minados en el Mar del Norte, llegando allí para asumir sus funciones como plantadora de minas, el 16 de julio, adjunta al Escuadrón de Minas 1. Para el 30 de septiembre de 1918, durante sus tres meses en aguas europeas, Aroostook había plantado 2.510 minas echando vapor 4, 066 millas durante sus "excursiones" mineras en el Mar del Norte.

El armisticio que detuvo los cañones en el frente occidental significó el cese de las operaciones mineras. Terminada su tarea, Aroostook zarpó de Portland, Inglaterra, el 14 de diciembre de 1918, hacia los Estados Unidos, en compañía de Shawmut, y llegó a Hampton Roads dos días después de Navidad. Al día siguiente, descargó su cargamento de mina en barcazas en el río York. Aroostook permaneció en el área de Hampton Roads en 1919 transfiriendo minas y llevando minas experimentales desde el plantador de minas Baltimore al Mine Depot en Yorktown, Virginia.

Aroostook entró en el Astillero de la Armada de Norfolk el 1 de abril de 1919 para realizar modificaciones a fin de prepararlo para servir como barco base para los hidroaviones de Carolina del Norte destinados a intentar un vuelo transatlántico. Recibió tanques por 5,000 galones de gasolina, cunas para manejar dos pequeños hidroaviones Curtiss MF y modificaciones a sus espacios de atraque y desorden para permitirle acomodar a los hombres necesarios para dar servicio a los hidroaviones. En camino hacia Nueva York el 9 de abril, Aroostook llegó al North River en la mañana del día 10, para llevar a bordo "provisiones de aviones" y suministros adicionales para el próximo vuelo. Zarpó hacia Trepassey Bay Newfoundland, la mañana del 27 de abril de 1919.

Después de anclar brevemente frente a Miquelon, Aroostook llegó a la bahía de Trepassey el 2 de mayo, y poco después se unieron otros barcos asignados para apoyar el vuelo NC. Aroostook completó la tarea de fondear amarres de hidroaviones el 3 de mayo y, el 5 y 6 de mayo, trató de ayudar al petrolero Hisko (Id. No. 1953) -que había llegado el 3 de mayo- frente a la playa donde había varado. .

Aroostook comenzó a cuidar los barcos NC el 10 de mayo, con la llegada de NC-1 y NC-3. NC-4 llegó en la tarde del día 15 y amarró a popa del barco, el último de la División NC en llegar a puerto antes del inicio del vuelo. A última hora de la tarde siguiente, el 16 de mayo, las tripulaciones de los grandes hidroaviones se reunieron a popa a bordo del Aroostook, donde el comandante de vuelo, Comdr. John H. Towers, agradeció al Capitán Tomb por la hospitalidad de su barco. Tomb apostó amablemente a Towers a que su barco llegaría a Plymouth, Inglaterra, antes de que llegaran los hidroaviones.

Poco después, las tripulaciones tripularon los tres grandes hidroaviones y pusieron en marcha sus motores. NC-4, comandado por el teniente comandante. Albert C. Read, al este de la popa de Aroostook y despegó un poco más de una hora más tarde, siguiendo el NC-3 de Towers y precediendo al teniente comandante. NC-1 de P. N. L. Bellinger.

Después de repostar de Hisko, Aroostook recuperó los amarres de hidroavión que había dejado casi dos semanas antes y se detuvo en el puerto de Trepassey en la mañana del 17 de mayo, con destino a Plymouth. Llegó el día 23, a la espera de la llegada de los barcos voladores. En última instancia, solo NC-4 completó el vuelo. NC-1 y NC-3 fueron obligados a bajar al mar y sus tripulaciones fueron rescatadas por barcos que pasaban, llegando a la vista de los vigías de Aroostook a las 1420 del 31 de mayo. El hidroavión aterrizó ocho minutos más tarde y su tripulación se embarcó a bordo del Aroostook "para alojamiento y subsistencia" a las 15.00.

Después de desmontar el NC-4, Aroostook llevó los motores, el casco y las alas a bordo en días separados, completando el proceso el 17 de junio. Al día siguiente, el barco zarpó hacia las Azores, llegando a Ponta Delaada el 23 de junio. Luego continuó su viaje a los Estados Unidos, llegando a Nueva York el 2 de julio de 1919. Después de repostar, tomar agua y provisiones, y someterse a reparaciones en Brooklyn, el barco se dirigió a Newport, RI, el 15 de julio, y permaneció allí. esperando órdenes, hasta el 23d.

Aroostook salió del puerto de Newport el 23 de julio y se dirigió a Hampton Roads, llegando al día siguiente. Luego transportó un tiro de hombres a Portsmouth, Virginia, el 31 de julio, y tomó suministros antes de trasladarse a Portsmouth para cargar minas y más suministros, completando la carga el 7 de agosto. Después de un período de recreación y libertad para su tripulación, Aroostook zarpó hacia la Zona del Canal de Panamá Colón, el 12 de agosto. Llegó a su destino el 18 de agosto y transitó por el Canal de Panamá al día siguiente.

Posteriormente, tomando combustible en Salina Cruz, México, el día 26, llegó a San Diego el 1 de septiembre. El 10 de septiembre, se dirigió a Mare Island Navy Yard, y llegó al día siguiente para descargar las minas traídas de Hampton Roads. Regresó a San Diego el 22 de septiembre para lanzar barcazas de aviación y desde el 24 de septiembre hasta la segunda semana de diciembre de 1919, permaneció en San Diego, esperando órdenes y sometiéndose a revisión de maquinaria.

Saliendo de San Diego el 13 de diciembre, Aroostook navegó a Mare Island, llegando al día siguiente, y allí embarcó un grupo de hombres para su transporte a San Diego. En marcha el 17, regresó a San Diego el 18.

Aroostook había sido uno de los dos barcos del Destacamento de Minas (el otro era Baltimore) que habían acompañado a la flota al Pacífico durante 1919-1920 inmediatamente después de su llegada al Pacífico, sin embargo, Aroostook había sido asignado a un deber temporal como buque insignia de la Destacamento Aéreo, Flota del Pacífico.

Desde el 18 de diciembre de 1919 al 16 de febrero de 1920, Aroostook operó desde San Diego, y durante los meses siguientes atendió unidades de aviación en San Diego, Santa Bárbara y San Pedro hasta el 14 de junio, cuando se dirigió a San Diego para una revisión de maquinaria, una de allí al astillero de la Marina de Mare Island. Al comienzo de ese período de disponibilidad, el barco recibió la designación alfanumérica de casco CM-3.

Asignado a la Flota del Pacífico como un avión auxiliar, Aroostook, bajo el mando del Capitán Henry C. Mustin, uno de los pioneros de la aviación naval, navegó hacia Sausalito, California, el 14 de agosto de 1920, y de allí a San Diego, llegando en el 19. El barco diezmó hidroaviones y participó en ejercicios tácticos con la flota en las aguas frente a la costa del sur de California hasta el otoño de 1920, después de lo cual se trasladó a Balboa, Zona del Canal, para seguir trabajando en la misma línea. Aroostook prosiguió luego hasta la bahía de Magdalena, México, y continuó sus operaciones de apoyo allí con los escuadrones de aviones de la flota desde el 31 de diciembre de 1920 hasta el 8 de marzo de 1921, después de lo cual regresó a su base en San Diego.

Tras descender a la isla Guadalupe, México, Aroostook atendió aviones allí hasta que regresó a San Diego el 30 de mayo. Operó localmente en las aguas de la costa del sur de California hasta junio de 1922, un período de operaciones activas marcado por el mantenimiento y las reparaciones en San Diego. Operó localmente en la Estación Aérea Naval (NAS), San Diego, durante el resto de 1922 y hasta 1923. Después de un período de reparaciones en Mare Island, Aroostook zarpó hacia San Diego el 28 de noviembre de 1923.

Aroostook zarpó hacia Panamá poco después, en compañía de Jason (AV-2), y apoyó las operaciones de aviación en las maniobras anuales de invierno de la flota. Luego de las operaciones locales desde San Diego ese mismo año, regresó a aguas panameñas, es hora de ir a Coco Solo, en el lado atlántico del canal, para ensamblar y operar aeronaves y participar en los ejercicios de la flota de invierno. También durante 1924, el barco atendió al Scouting Squadron (VS) 2 en Sand Point, Washington, durante un ejercicio de base avanzado, ese verano, y se sometió a reparaciones y alteraciones en el Mare Island Navy Yard hasta noviembre.

El 27 de abril de 1925, Aroostook llegó a aguas de Hawai y operó con la flota desde Pearl Harbor en ejercicios durante el verano, en Lahaina Roads y en Nawiliwili, Kauai. Elegido como uno de los barcos de guardia del avión para el vuelo de la costa oeste a Hawái de los hidroaviones PN-9 de la Armada (PN-9 No. 1 comandados por el Comandante John Rodgers y PN-9 No. 3, comandados por el Tte. AP Snody), Aroostook zarpó hacia la estación "vice" en la mañana del 29 de agosto de 1925. Llegó a su estación a última hora de la tarde del día 30.

Ese mismo día, Rodgers y Snody habían despegado hacia Hawai desde la bahía de San Pablo, California. Menos de cinco horas después, sin embargo, una fuga de aceite obligó al PN-9 No. 3 de Snody a bajar. Tampoco todo estaba bien a bordo del lugar de Rodgers, ya que reveló que el consumo de gasolina a bordo del PN-9 No. 1 era seis galones por hora más alto de lo que se había indicado en los vuelos de prueba. Antes de que el avión volara 1.200 millas, Rodgers decidió que tendría que aterrizar junto a uno de los guardias del plan e y repostar. Pensó que tenía suficiente gasolina para llegar a Aroostook en la estación "vice".

La navegación a estima de Rodgers mostró que estaba a unas pocas millas al norte de su trayectoria proyectada, pero los rumbos de la brújula de radio de Aroostook (erróneos, según resultó) indicaban que estaba volando hacia el sur de ese barco. Suponiendo que la licitación no estaba en su lugar adecuado, giró PN-9 No. 1 hacia el norte para buscarla. La presencia de chubascos de lluvia en la zona aumentó la incertidumbre de Rodgers, se acabó la gasolina del avión y el hidroavión hizo un aterrizaje forzoso el 1 de septiembre a las 1615, 25 horas y 23 minutos después de haber despegado de la bahía de San Pablo.

La desaparición del hidroavión desencadenó una búsqueda intensiva, dirigida por Comdr. W. R. Van Auken, oficial al mando de Aroostook. Langley (CV-1) también participó, sus aviones realizaron búsquedas diarias en las aguas adyacentes, mientras que submarinos y aviones patrulla que volaban desde las islas hawaianas se unieron al esfuerzo por encontrar el PN-9 No. 1.

Barriendo el cielo con su reflector por la noche y colocando vigías adicionales a todas horas, Aroostook buscó a los volantes perdidos hasta el 7 de septiembre, cuando se dirigió brevemente a Pearl Harbor para cargar combustible y agua. Destacó el mismo día para reanudar la búsqueda, y se unió a Langley y los destructores Reno (DD-303) y Farragut (DD-300). Sin embargo, finalmente, el submarino R-4 (SS-81) se encontró con Rodgers y su intrépida tripulación navegando el PN-9 No. 1 a diez millas de la isla de Kauai a las 16.00 del 10 de septiembre, a unas 450 millas de donde se había ido el hidroavión. cuando se le acabó el combustible, y los rescató.

Aroostook pronto regresó a la costa oeste, transportando hombres y material para VS-2. Después de las operaciones locales fuera de NAS, San Diego, el barco se sometió a más trabajos de revisión en Mare Island desde el 24 de noviembre de 1925. Zarpó hacia aguas panameñas en marzo siguiente para las maniobras de la Flota de Batalla. Al regresar a San Diego el 24 de abril de 1926, se desempeñó como licitador interino para Langley durante el Ejercicio de Flota No. 2 de ese mes de junio. Operando en San Diego durante el resto del año, completó el año atendiendo los hidroaviones del Escuadrón Torpedo (VT) 2. Al año siguiente, 1927, Aroostook operó entre San Diego y Panamá, realizando maniobras con la flota y, en ocasiones, , operando nuevamente como guardia de avión para Langley. El Día de la Marina de 1927 (27 de octubre), visitó San Francisco.

Después de realizar ejercicios tácticos con la flota en noviembre y diciembre 192-7, Aroostook zarpó hacia Hawai la primavera siguiente. Durante este período, volvió a vigilar el avión para Langley. Regresando a San Pedro el 23 de junio, y de allí a San Diego el mismo día, el barco permaneció en San Diego hasta mediados de septiembre, momento en el cual ingresó a Mare Island Navy Yard para su revisión. Cumplido ese período de reparaciones y alteraciones, zarpó rumbo a Panamá, llegando a esas aguas el 27 de enero de 1929. Allí se desempeñó como guardia de avión del portaaviones Saratoga (CV-3) y participó en problemas de flota con la Batalla. Flota en la Bahía de Panamá. Regresó a San Diego el 22 de marzo de 1929.

Después de acompañar a la flota a la Bahía de Guantánamo en marzo de 1930, se dirigió a Hampton Roads y luego visitó Washington, DC antes de regresar a Hampton Roads con un partido del Congreso embarcado. Mientras estuvo en esas aguas, se desempeñó como guardia de avión para Lexington (CV-2). Al regresar a Washington el 23 de mayo, zarpó dos días después hacia Southern Drill Grounds y finalmente regresó a San Diego el 13 de junio de 1930 en compañía de la División 3 del Acorazado, y como guardia de avión para Langley. Más tarde ese año, atendió aviones involucrados en el bombardeo de barcos objetivo ex-Sloat (DD-316) y ex-Marcus (DD-321) e inspeccionó objetivos. El 2 de diciembre de 1930, Aroostook, con una utilidad y dos escuadrones de patrulla, se presentó al servicio con el Comandante, Base Force, proporcionando ese comando con su primera organización de aviación. Completó el año atendiendo aviones del Escuadrón de Patrulla (VP) 7B, participando en un problema de exploración.

Desarmado en Puget Sound Navy Yard, el 10 de marzo de 1931, Aroostook permaneció inactivo durante los siguientes diez años. La Armada consideró reactivar el barco para el servicio como buque de carga dando el paso de reclasificarlo como AK-44 el 20 de mayo de 1941, pero encontró que no era apto para esta tarea. Su nombre fue borrado del Registro de Buques Navales el 5 de febrero de 1943, y fue transferida a la War Shipping Administration.

Llevado al área de almacenamiento de la Comisión Marítima en Suisun Bay, California, el barco, aparentemente listado bajo su nombre anterior Bunker Hill, fue adquirido por Seven Seas Trading and Shipping Co., de Beverly Hills, California, en 1947. The new owners c hristened her as Lux and converted the hull to a floating casino to be anchored outside the three-mile limit. Several snarls with the law and, finally, seizure of the ship by the Coast Guard, however, brought this colorful phase of her career to an end, and she was ultimately sold to a shipbreaker in October 1947 for scrap.


The secret history of Reno

This article was published on 04.26.18

At the California/Nevada border in 1938, labor leader C.L. Adams (on the fender) led a contingent of workers seeking to support Nevada workers.

One day in March 1923, Reno’s postmaster heard from the U.S. Post Office in D.C. that Washoe County had a new fourth class post office at Diessner, a location of which no one in Reno had ever heard and could not find.

The same day, the Reno City Council dealt with park matters—an offer by S.H. Wheeler to donate to the city a block bounded by Crampton, Burns, Locust and Wilson streets for a park.

And Reno City Councilmember Roy Frisch proposed creation of a park in a rock quarry at Stewart and Wheeler streets.

After a day of searching, it was announced that Diessner had been located. It was 20 miles north of Vya and six miles south of the Oregon border. Then as now, there was great turnover in Nevada’s population, and residents did not always know the terrain.

Today there are homes, not a park, on the block Wheeler offered to the city. When given a choice between development or the good life, city officials, then as now, usually chose the former.

Frisch got his park—Stewart Park still exists. But Frisch himself later vanished, never to be seen again, a victim of the corruption that permeated life in Reno.

One thing we don’t have from that single day in 1923 is an instance of the city’s deep-seated racism. But we can be all but certain it manifested itself in some way that March day, because it was so woven into the town’s fabric. Reno was, after all, fertile ground for Klan organizers and saw a Klavern established a few months later.

There were no professional historians in Nevada until Russell Elliott in the 1950s. Until then, local history was written by local figures with a stake in the players. As a result, history arrived for later generations cleansed and sanitized. There was little of the bigotry, corruption and venality that accompanied the growth of the town.

Newspapers, first the Crescent, then—more permanently—the Gazette and Journal, tended to be community boosters, yet the seamy sides of the town come through clearly, so it’s difficult not to wonder what horrors they withheld for fear of driving off investors or tourists.

A 150th anniversary seems like a good time to reclaim some of this lost history, and learn from it.

When Nevada entered the union during the Civil War and until the 1890s, it was a Republican state. The party of Lincoln treated African Americans benevolently. When, in 1879, there was legislation in Congress proposing reservations for blacks, the Nevada State Journal mildly editorialized, “It lacks practicality.”

Blacks in Nevada were treated better than Asians or Native Americans, but it was only a matter of degree. Community benevolence fluctuated from hostility to gentility. Often blacks were objects of curiosity, as when in 1900 the Reno Gazette ran an article titled “The Negro in hot weather.”

African Americans tended to have a Reno of their own, as when they built a church on Bell Street in 1910. To be black in Reno meant to live apart from the other Reno.

Violence against blacks could be employed with impunity. In 1908, Tom Ramsey pistol whipped a black jockey who declined to race, nearly causing a riot.

In 1907, the McKissick Opera House played Under Southern Skies, a play about a “poor girl suspecting that there is a negro taint in her blood … [who] sacrifices herself for her family’s sake.”

In 1908, the Journal editorialized, “Haiti is a land of savage beasts.”

In 1909, the Reno Gazette warned “WHITE SUPREMACY GOING DOWN” about the lack of a white fighter to face African American champion Jack Johnson. When the Great White Hope fight was held in Reno the next year, a photograph of all the boxing champions attending the fight was taken. The reigning heavyweight champ who won the title again that day was excluded.

Even service to the country did not shield blacks. In 1943, the Reno USO Council held a meeting to decide what to do when the owner of a building rented for a USO center for African American soldiers canceled the rental agreement, returned the rent check, and told Mayor August Frohlich he had received complaints from other property owners. Later, at a meeting chaired by Frohlich, the problem of hotels and restaurants being unwilling to serve African Americans was discussed, with the possibility of moving Civilian Conservation Corps buildings to the city for black housing suggested, and local USO director Father Thomas Collins reported that a new site had been located at 221 Lake Street.

In 1946, instead of welcoming black veterans into a local chapter, the American Legion chartered a separate Reno post for African Americans.

In 1952, the Army announced that because Reno businesses refused to serve African American soldiers stationed at Stead Air Force Base, the Army was starting bus service between Stead and Sacramento for black soldiers to use for R&R.

The next year, Air Force officials, noting that there were no clubs in Reno admitting African Americans, urged the Reno city council to approve a liquor license for Theresa King, who wanted to operate King’s Lounge at 900 E. Commercial Row. A white physician, Dr. Morse Little, provided a character reference for Ms. King.

Reno clubs said they mostly integrated in 1960 after Gov. Grant Sawyer warned they would give the city a black eye during its role as host city for the 1960 Winter Olympics.

But what was reported to be Reno’s first sit-in was staged by African Americans a year later at the Overland Hotel’s café while elsewhere in the downtown the same day a picket line was thrown up at the Nevada Bank of Commerce.

In 1963, the Gazette ran a cartoon of Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali) captioned “HIM AND HIS BIG MOUTH” and showing the boxer’s head made up mostly of mouth.

Marianne Reddick, owner of the Academy Personnel Agency said a local businessperson had chewed out one of her job counselors for sending a black applicant on a job referral, so she had “White Only” printed on work referrals.

Native Americans had seniority, but the example set by community leaders, including newspaper owners, had a lot to do with how Renoites treated tribal members. In 1891, when a group of representatives of eastern tribes came to Nevada to visit the Paiute prophet Wovoka, Reno’s Journal belittled them. In 1893, a group of Native Americans were sent to San Francisco to be “exhibited” at a fair. In 1911, Native American Jack Macini was hit by the Overland Limited, mangled, decapitated and killed—all of which was a source of amusement to the Gazette, which published a long supercilious story filled with disdain and a white person’s version of tribal lore—and elsewhere in the same edition there was a one-inch death notice on a second, apparently less interesting “buck Indian.”

Newspaper owners changed, and sometimes the attitude toward Native Americans changed with them, becoming more sympathetic if patronizing. The Journal in 1911: “It is a reproach on civilization that these young Indians should be in the condition of close cousins to savage wildcats.”

Tribal food was a regular grievance. Whites cut down pine nut trees, a regular part of the native diet, deeply angering tribes. Whites constantly complained about the tribes fishing—as they had done for centuries—from the Truckee River, named for a Piute leader. In 1900, the Journal bragged that its campaign against illegal fishing in the Truckee was making headway: “It is reported that a number of Indians have been infringing the law between here and Laughton’s [west of Reno] and it would be well if the offenders were captured and made an example of.” Tribal members were regularly arrested for selling trout in Reno.

At a Native American settlement on the east end of the Truckee Meadows, a store owned by George Moffit was blown up, killing him and injuring his wife and child.

In 1902, tribal leader Captain Jim wrote about the loss of tribal lands: “Now on account of not having homes the Washoe Indians wander from place to place and learn these destructive habits which the white people have introduced. … Some white men says that we have no business to drink whiskey if we know it to be dangerous, but they do the very same thing, yet they are supposed to be civilized men.”

If some whites reached out to them, officialdom was there to insist that tribal members be shunned. In 1914, Victor Catrini was convicted in Reno police court of associating with Native Americans. His sentence—leave Reno.

White officialdom seldom aided Indians, but in 1924 Indian police officer Sam Johns arrested Alex Jamison for selling denatured alcohol to Native Americans in the jungles along the Truckee River.

After World War II, Congress reacted to the uncomfortable parallels between German treatment of the Jews and U.S. treatment of the tribes by creating a Claims Commission. The Washo tribe filed a claim of $43,811,985.84 based on the 1862 value of Washo land, mineral, timber, fish and game rights, plus interest, all as a result of findings by professional assessors. Twenty-one años later, the Commission settled the case by paying $5,000,000 to the Washo.

In 1975, a Native American employee of the Washoe County School District accused the district of misusing federal funds earmarked for tribal education by “trying to eliminate us from the curriculum.”

In early Reno, the Chinese were known for excellent vegetables and as laundry operators. But as new arrivals, they were also identified as a threat to the jobs of whites.

In 1879, the Journal: “[U.S. Secretary of State William Evarts] having declared the influx of Chinese to this coast is ‘an invasion, not an immigration,’ it becomes the duty of every good citizen to expel the invaders.”

Two major efforts were undertaken by whites against the Chinese in Reno—the White Laundry and the burning of Chinatown.

Because the Chinese dominated the laundry business in Reno, white businesspeople met, formed a corporation, and pooled their money to build a White Laundry to try to drive the Chinese laundries out of business. On April 2, 1886, a ball was held in Reno to honor the anti-Chinese movement and celebrate the opening of the Reno Steam Laundry Association building. The next day, the Gazette editorialized that the laundry for whites—people, not linens—would be a test of whether white residents were willing to drop their patronage of Chinese laundries.

Arson was tried against Chinatown twice. In 1878, a Reno off-shoot of Denis Kearney’s racist San Francisco Workingman’s Party movement, responding to a construction contract going to a Chinese firm, burned most of Chinatown down. Its residents moved across the river and reestablished Chinatown there.

In 1908, city officials elicited a condemnation order against Chinatown from the city health board and again burned Chinatown down, leaving the inhabitants in the snow. Businesspeople who disliked publicity that might drive off industry or tourists could have read later reports in places like the Boston Transcript of the Chinese Benevolent Association of San Francisco wiring President Roosevelt asking him to help “right the wrongs suffered by the Chinese of Reno.”

Roosevelt was of no help on that matter, but not long after, when the Nevada Legislature caused an international incident, he summoned U.S. Senators Frank Newlands and George Nixon of Nevada and apparently asked the two Nevadans to lobby against an anti-Japanese measure—it described the Japanese as “parasites of the world” and also criticized Roosevelt—in the Nevada Legislature.

The power that the example of alleged adults can have was seen during this same period when a group of boys in Reno with a slingshot tormented a Japanese man named Hashamura. An article on the incident in the Goldfield Chronicle ran just beneath an article on plans for juvenile courts in Nevada.

During World War II, Nevada was nearly surrounded by states—Utah, Arizona, California, Idaho—that hosted internment camps for U.S. citizens. Why not Nevada? Because Gov. Ted Carville made clear to federal officials that he wanted no part of Japanese, even imprisoned ones. In 1943, he stopped 100 Japanese Americans evacuated from the West Coast from assisting Moapa farmers with their tomato crop.

In 1957, the City of Reno’s condemnation committee declared a Reno historic landmark, a Chinese joss house (house of worship) at First and Lake streets—one of the few remnants of the city’s rich Chinese heritage—to be unfit for use. It was removed.

Alcohol prohibition and hard times made a combustible combination in Nevada.

In the early 20th century, there was an influential reform group in Reno that did not want prizefighting and divorce to be the only things for which the city was known. They actually had a certain level of success promoting Reno as a health resort.

But organized vice was lucrative, and a wide open town eventually prevailed over civic betterment.

The open town policies of Mayor Edwin Roberts sent a message, and soon Reno became a fiefdom of gangster bosses—George Wingfield, William Graham, James McKay, Tex Hall. All enjoyed a patina of respectability because of their legal businesses while they ran a town that became a criminal mecca like Joplin or Chicago. Auto gangsters like Baby Face Nelson and the Barker gang found their way to Reno to cool off between crimes.

Unsurprisingly, prohibition officers were regularly caught in crime themselves, including state director John Donnelley.

Reno newspapers played the game and did nothing to disrupt the corruption, referring to Graham and McKay as “sportsmen.” The first Nevada Pulitzer Prize went to the Sacramento Bee in 1935 for an exposé of judicial affairs in Nevada. It was a novelist, Walter Van Tilburg Clark, who wrote what Reno newspapers at the time kept quiet, and Clark’s book, which referenced a Reno boss named “Nick Briasi,” told the tale in 1945:

Mr. Hazard told Briasi … a lot of things he must have been storing up for a long time. He mentioned a murder in Douglas Alley, a minister who had been forced to leave town because of a drunken speech the mayor had made from his pulpit, unexplained fires in out-of-town nightclubs, prohi raids from San Francisco that busted up some clubs, but never touched others, dope peddling that nobody could trace, even in a town as small as Reno, the finances of the red-light district. … “You push this, you two-bit, back alley Capone,” he yelled at Briasi, “And I’ll open it up if it costs me every nickel I’ve ever made.”

Graham, McKay, Hall and their cronies were immune in Nevada courts, but federal prosecutors eventually won convictions of them—but not of Wingfield. Roy Frisch was supposed to testify until he disappeared. When the gangsters were released from prison, they were welcomed back to Nevada with open arms.

Some later writers emphasized the colorful aspects of the corrupt town, never mentioning those who suffered at the hands of the crime lords, paying the price of graft and vice.

Workers were among the worst tormenters of Asians. But the time came when workers themselves suffered at the hands of Reno leaders. Labor troubles were common in the Depression. In the 1922 national railroad strike, Nevada Gov. Emmet Boyle set a terrible example by personally leading an attack on a group of pickets outside a Las Vegas Union Pacific stockade.

Ten years later, in 1932, contempt of court charges against two Culinary Union officials over picketing at Reno’s Monarch Café in spite of a restraining order obtained by the owners were dismissed, but an injunction against picketing was granted.

Then the Reno City Council got involved. The Culinary Workers Union pulled pickets off seven Reno restaurants after the Council enacted a picketing ban. It was an outrageous attack on free expression, but the law was used repeatedly over the years. In 1937, two labor union picketers were arrested and charged by city attorney Douglas Busey under the law. The next month, in heavily union Sparks, that City Council considered adopting a similar law, drawing the ire of local Machinists Union leader Philip Drury.

In 1938, law enforcement took sides in a labor dispute when Washoe County Sheriff Ray Root and a couple of hundred American Legion “deputies” tried to block solidarity pickets from California from entering Nevada to join local union members picketing Reno’s Isbell Construction at Verdi Glen. The Californians set up on the west side of the state line and picketed the state of Nevada, asking motorists not to enter the state. Police had obstructed the constitutional right of freedom of movement, specifically “right of free ingress into other States,” as the U.S. Supreme Court phrased it.

When Culinary Workers Union member Paula Day was arrested for violating Reno’s anti-picketing law in front of an East Commercial Row cafe in 1939, Busey tried unsuccessfully to get the issue to the Nevada Supreme Court for a ruling on the legality of the ordinance, but neither Day nor the Culinary attorney attended a hearing.

The use of the ordinance declined during the war years, and it was still on the books in the 1960s. A test case was sparked when American Federation of Casino and Gaming Employees representative Stanley Philipie picketed and leafleted in front of the Horseshoe Club in Reno. The Nevada Supreme Court overturned the arrest, saying expression can be regulated, “but it cannot be forbidden entirely.”

It is easy to say today’s Reno is not yesterday’s Reno. But this century and millennium began with an arson attack on a Reno synagogue. Picketers at the Reno census office were arrested four years after the city ordinance was overruled. Thirty thousand people signed a petition this very year calling for a University of Nevada, Reno student to be expelled for having an opinion and expressing it nonviolently.


Biography & Loss

Walter Elsworth Reno was born in Davis County, Iowa, on 3 October 1881. He entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1901 and graduated in 1905. While a junior officer, Reno served primarily in battleships. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in 1910 and during the next four years was stationed in the battleships New Jersey and Wisconsin. From early 1914 until early 1916 he was Officer in Charge at the Chicago, Illinois, Navy Recruiting Station.

Lieutenant Reno then went out to the Philippines, where he took command of the destroyer Chauncey. In the Summer of 1917, after United States had entered World War I, Reno brought his ship from the Far East to the European war zone. While on convoy escort duty west of Gibraltar during the night of 19 November 1917, Chauncey was rammed by a merchant steamer and sank, taking with her Lieutenant Commander Reno and twenty of his ship's officers and men.


Mục lục

Reno được đặt lườn vào ngày 4 tháng 7 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu Union Iron Works của hãng Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation ở San Francisco, California. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 22 tháng 1 năm 1919, được đỡ đầu bởi cô Kathryn Baldwin Anderson, con gái Thống đốc California Alden Anderson [2] và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 23 tháng 7 năm 1920. Mẹ của Thiếu tá Reno, bà L. D. Reno ở Eldon, Iowa, được mời đỡ đầu con tàu, nhưng đã từ chối vì lý do sức khỏe. Vợ góa của Thiếu tá Reno, bà Beatrice Tracy Reno, con gái của cựu Trợ lý bộ trưởng hải quân Frank Tracy, cũng từng được cân nhắc là người đỡ đầu cho con tàu. [3]

Được phân về Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương, Reno hoạt động dọc theo vùng bờ Tây Hoa Kỳ cho đến tháng 1 năm 1921, khi nó gia nhập các đơn vị khác của hạm đội trong một chuyến đi đến Valparaíso, Chile. Tiếp nối các hoạt động dọc theo vùng bờ Tây sau khi quay trở về, nó hoạt động giữa Washington và khu vực Nam California, thỉnh thoảng có những chuyến đi đến vùng quần đảo Hawaii hay vùng kênh đào Panama. Vào tháng 4 năm 1927, nó đi sang phía Đông đến tận vịnh Guantánamo, Cuba, và vào tháng 7 năm đó đã có mặt tại Prince Rupert, British Columbia tham dự lễ hội kỷ niệm 75 năm thành lập Canada.

Reno được cho xuất biên chế tại San Diego, California vào ngày 18 tháng 1 năm 1930. Tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 8 tháng 7 năm 1930 và nó bị tháo dỡ vào năm 1931 nhằm tuân thủ các điều khoản hạn chế vũ trang của Hiệp ước Hải quân London.


Historia

The people that inhabited the Great Basin prior to the European invasion were the Numa or Numu (Northern Paiute), the Washeshu (Washoe), the Newe (Shoshone), and the Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute).

In each of these groups’ language, these names meant “The People.” Within these groups were bands of Indians who were often referred to with words that reflected where they lived or what they ate.

For example, the Agai Ticutta referred to the trout eaters near the Walker River or the Toi Ticutta referred to the tulle eaters near the Stillwater Marshes.

Today, The People continue to recognize their special place on Earth and all the life cycles. Traditionally, The People lived a well-planned, harmonious life which was predicated on their immediate surroundings and nature. Time could not be wasted. Knowing what the land would offer was a matter of survival, thus The People’s migration patterns were strategic and well-thought-out. The People followed the food and over thousands of years, each band evolved as an efficient, social and economic unit that could comfortably inhabit the land on which the People had been placed since time immemorial.

Living in cycles with the seasons, the Numu occupied the strip known as Western Nevada, Eastern Nevada, Eastern Oregon, and Southern Idaho. The Washeshu gathered annually at Lake Tahoe and dispersed for several hundred miles throughout the remainder of the year.

The Newe were found in what is today called Eastern Nevada, Utah, and Southern California.

The Nuwuvi inhabited the Colorado River Basin where they harvested corn, squash, wheat and beans.

To each group, the animals of the Great Basin gave insight to creation and wise guidance on how to live. Though each group spoke a different language Washoe, a Hokoan derivative the other dialects of the Uto-Aztecan origin they understood and respected the lifestyles of the other immediate groups and other tribes with whom they came in contact. In fact, much trade and commerce occurred among the original inhabitants of the entire continent. Conflicts occurred only when economic necessities forced a group to raid or confiscate the resources of another group.

Though The People consider that they have been here since time began, archeological evidence places the earliest residents of Nevada as living here about 10,000 years ago. In 1994, the Nevada State Museum carbon dated remains which were unearthed in 1940 near Fallon, Nev. According to modern science, the burial remains of “Spirit Cave Man” prove that he lived in the area over 9,400 years ago.

Because the Great Basin was one of the last major frontiers to be explored and settled by European-Americans, The People sustained their way-of-life and ethnic identity much longer than most Tribes in other parts of the country.

In fact, at first contact in what would become Nevada, hundreds of other Tribes were enduring the fourth major shift in U.S. Government policy toward American Indians. From 1492-1828, or during the Colonial Period, Indians were dealt with as sovereign nations. Many treaties and agreements were negotiated with France and England as these countries recognized that the Indians had their own form of government, their own leaders, and their own homelands.

Around 1830, the Spanish Trail opened in southern Nevada and explorers and trappers made their way into the arid landscape. In the beginning, many tribal groups were curious about these newcomers and The People attempted to establish relationships with them. Yet, as time went on it was difficult to maintain a friendly association as The People found it difficult to adapt to the disruption in their lives caused by these newcomers.

Although there is little written about Spaniards being in Washoe territory, there are some stories by the Washoe that suggest such an occurrence. The first written records of non-Indians in Washoe lands took place in 1826.

The Shoshone and Northern Paiute also encountered non-Indians about this time. Unfortunately, the explorers and the settlers did not understand the lifestyle of The People.

The non-Indians thought that The People wandered aimlessly from place to place, but these assumptions were completely wrong. As a matter of survival, the tribes followed seasonal, migratory patterns for hunting and gathering food and other materials needed for life in the Great Basin. While settlers saw the desert as rigid and desolated land, The People enjoyed the land’s abundant resources.

However, everything drastically changed in 1848 with the discovery of gold in California. Major changes were in store for The People and these changes, still impact the way The People live today. From 1778-1871 or during the Treaty Period, the U.S. government developed 370 treaties in an attempt to legally negotiate with Indian Tribes. During this era of nearly 100 years, these treaties often benefited those who were moving westward and not the tribes.

The only treaty to impact Great Basin Indians was the Treaty with the Western Shoshoni [sic]. This agreement of “Peace and Friendship” was ratified in 1866. By the middle of the 1800s, so many settlers inhabited the People’s land the Indians struggled to find food.

Within five years, close to 250,000 people made their way across Nevada, hunting and fishing and infringing on The People’s traditional homelands. This encroachment extremely limited and in some areas exhausted the food supply. Even the introduction of the horse to the Great Basin served as competition for food for the Indians.

Cultural clashes soon developed, too.

There was a significant difference in perspective regarding land occupation versus land ownership. The settlers believed in land ownership, meaning that once they chose an area in which to live, they tended to stay in that one location. Meanwhile, The People utilized the land seasonally and only occupied the area for a short term. As The People struggled to adapt, the federal government shifted its policy towards Indians again. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 halted any future treaties with Tribes and it gave Congress the authority to isolate the People in order to allow economic growth throughout the United States. This was done through the creation of reservations.

One of the main goals of reservations was to move The People to one central location and to provide them with a piece of land to cultivate.

Ultimately, the federal government believed that separating The People from the rest of its citizens would solve land disputes. The development and activation of reservations was a campaign promise of U.S. President Andrew Jackson and most of the land set aside was undesirable lands that the settlers did not want anyway. Some tribes and bands fought the process of removal and eventually, assimilation, but in doing so, the Tribes were perceived as hostile and uncivilized. It was during the Reservation Period that the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, allowed the Nevada territory to join the union. Without including the Great Basin Native Americans in the count, Nevada’s population did not meet the federal requirements for becoming a state. However, on October 31, 1864, President Lincoln proclaimed Nevada as the 36th state.

Soon thereafter, the Moapa River Paiute Reservation and then the Walker River Paiute Indian Reservation were each established by executive order in 1873. Back in 1859, the Department of Interior had recommended that land be set aside for Indian use north of the Truckee River and including Pyramid Lake. Though an executive order was issued in 1874 to establish the Pyramid Lake Reservation, the legal year of establishment is 1859.

In 1871, the Indian Appropriations Act gave the U.S. Congress exclusive right and power to regulate trade and affairs with the Indian tribes and the U.S. Supreme Court legally designated Indians as domestic dependent nations and wards of the federal government. This jarring shift in policy toward Indians meant more federal control over The People.

From 1887-1934, the U.S. federal government began its Allotment and Assimilation plan for dealing with the Indians. These policies closely resembled the European model of land ownership with an ultimate goal on pushing The People to become part of white society. In doing so, not only did the government take additional land from tribes, but it attempted to erase reservation boundaries and force Indians into society at large.

The Dawes Act divided tribal land into individual parcels and halted communal land use which paralleled traditional native life styles. The vast majority of Indians lands taken through the Dawes Act were not just used for new settlements, but for railroads, mining and forestry industries.

In addition, the Allotment and Assimilation Period called for Indians to be educated in boarding schools operated by the government. Indian children were often taken from their families and made to attending these military-like institutions, hundreds of miles away from their families.

As a result of the allotment system, nationwide, Indian territory was reduced from 138 million acres to only 48 million acres. Along with the devastating loss of their land, The People’s fundamental structure for Tribal life was destroyed, too. Another major shift in federal policy happened after a U.S. government commissioned study evaluated the conditions of Indian communities.

In stunning details, the Meriam Report outlined the ineffectiveness of the Dawes Act as it found that the overwhelming majority of Indian people were extremely poor, in bad health, living in primitive dwellings, and without adequate employment.

The Meriam Report blamed the hardships that the Indians faced on the encroachment of white civilization. The report stated that the Indians’ social system did not and would not work with the conditions forced onto them. These findings were the basis for the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The IRA encouraged Tribes to organize their own governments and incorporate their trust land. This is how the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony was established.

At the turn of the century, many Numa and Washoe lived in the Reno-Sparks area, not only because this was the aboriginal lands for The People, but more and more Indians moved to the area to find jobs. The transition to colonies actually represented another adaptive strategy for the Indians. Often, The People not living on a reservation were considered “scattered or homeless.”

These Indians tried to maintain some of their old ways by building traditional homes, sometimes with modern materials, in camps in urban areas, often near the Truckee River.

In 1917, the federal government purchased 20 acres for $6,000 for non-reservation Indians of Nevada and for homeless Indians. This land is the core of the present-day Colony. Most of the land was not cultivatable, however the Indian Bureau dug irrigation ditches to provide some drinking water, but most of the Indians collected drinking water from a spring about a quarter of a mile away.

Initially, the Numa lived on the north side of the Colony, while the Washoe lived on the south side of Colony. The Reno-Sparks Indian Colony and all colonies received some governmental services and were most often considered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to be under their jurisdiction. For example, the purchase of additional land in 1926 was part of an effort to improve the water supply for the Colony.

Plus, from 1920-1930, a nurse and a police officer, paid from federal government funds, were stationed at the Colony. Further, in 1938 the United States Supreme Court ruled that there was no distinction between a colony and a reservation which meant that the superintendence of the Colony fell to the federal government.

To that end, an additional 8.38 acres was added to the Colony in 1926. Purchased for about $4,000, this strip of land allowed for a day school. For many years, residents of the Colony sent their children to this local government operated school instead of a boarding school about 40 miles away.

However, the Colony school was closed in the early 1940s because the building was in such disrepair. The Indian children’s only option was to attend public school, but discrimination was rampant.

Mercifully, in 1945, Grace Warner, the principal of Orvis Ring School, invited the Indian student to attend her school. This arrangement which included busing the Colony students to Orvis Ring, lasted until 1975 when the public school system required the Indian students to attend the school closest in proximity to the Colony.

As permissible under the IRA, the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony established its first formal council in 1934.

On February 9, 1934 the elected council included three Paiutes—Cleveland Cypher, Thomas Ochiho, and George Hooten, and three Washoes—Willie Tondy, Jack Mahoney, and George McGinnis. Harry Sampson was selected Chairman of the Council.

In a letter to Nevada Senator Key Pitman, the new council supported the IRA, writing that the bill would be of lasting benefit to the progress of all Indians in the United States. Additionally, the new Colony leadership with input from Acting Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent John H. Holst, conducted a vote in which the IRA was overwhelmingly supported by the Colony residents.

Furthermore, five men— Sampson, Cypher, Mahoney, Tondy, and George Hunter worked on a constitution for the Colony. Additional assistance crafting the constitution came from George LaVatta, a Northern Shoshone from the Fort Hall Reservation who worked as a federal government field agent. The Colony’s constitution was adopted on December 16, 1935 and was approved by a vote of 51-1.

In 1936, the Colony tried to adopt a charter, but the BIA’s field superintendent, Alida Bowler, delayed submitting the paperwork to the federal government. Bowler did not believe all the signatures were authentic as many Colony members who could not write, had someone else sign his or her name. Bowler returned the petition with instructions to have person who could not write, make a cross or a thumbprint, but that action had to be witnessed by two other persons.

Adding to the confusion, most often charters enabled tribes to get credit which would assist the Indians with economic development. Bowler did not think the RSIC could get credit because it had no agricultural resources.

However, the Colony’s charter, which was approved on January 7, 1939, included plans for the tribe to establish a cooperating laundry, a store, a meat market, a gas station, arrangements for the raising of poultry, and a harness repair shop for individual Indian members who wanted to do business for themselves.

Also under Sampson’s leadership, the RSIC tried to take advantage of a provision in the IRA to purchase more land for the Colony. With input from E. M. Johnstone, a BIA land field agent, LaVatta, and Bowler, a proposal for the purchase of 1,080 acres between Highway 40 and the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks in the Truckee Canyon was submitted to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on January 25, 1937.

Unfortunately, this land purchase never came to fruition as the federal government’s field agent, active agent, and superintendent, could not agree on how to proceed. While, the RSIC continued to build its sovereignty and explore economic opportunities for its members, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower changed the federal government’s policy toward American Indians and began the Termination Era.

To deal with the Indians nationwide, Eisenhower sought complete elimination of the U.S. government’s trust responsibility to the tribes. This meant that scores of tribes lost their federal benefits and support services, along with tribal jurisdiction over their lands.

All told, the Termination Era, which lasted from 1945 to 1968, eliminated 109 tribal governments and reservations. Fortunately, no tribes in Nevada were terminated.

Finally, in 1970, U.S. President Richard Nixon developed the latest national policy toward Indians, Tribal Self-Determination. Self-Determination gave autonomy to tribes by allowing the Indians to control their own affairs and be independent of federal oversight without being cut off from federal support.
———————————————————————————————————————–
Today, the RSIC has expanded its original land base to 15,292 acres with 1, 157 Tribal members. The Colony employs over 300 employees and more than half are The People.

The Tribe also maintains a tribal court system, a police force and a health clinic, and it provides full government services to its membership. The Tribe’s other governmental departments include administration, education, public works, human services, utility district, planning, prevention coalition, enrollment, human resources, economic development, recreation, finance, housing, and the chairman’s office.

Below is the Tribal government organizational chart:
ORG CHART- 08-14-2019


Recent comments (view all 16 comments)

Thank you for the speedy reply. I wish I could furnish the answers you request, but alas, I have forgotten &ndash if I ever knew them. I spent the summers and weekends at both drive-ins with my high school sweetie in &lsquo64. '65, and '66. In '64, I actually woked at the Rt. 303, Orangebyrg drive-in during the summer. The Nyack Drive-in, which may have technically been located in Blauvelt, followed the Rt. 303 Drive-in in opening, but I don&rsquot know when it actually opened or what the first movie shown was. It was located just south of Lake Oneora swimming club, also long gone now.

I did see a related website or &lsquoblog&rsquo about those drive-ins in classmates.com, somewhere- let me see if I can locate the URL before I close. Gracias,
Tom Davis
PD. try and copy and paste this url:
View link

Bill Fredericks of Pearl River NY was one of the main projectionists at the 303 Drive-In for many many years beginning in the 1950’s. (Not sure about the exact spelling of his name, might have been Frederick.) I was in the booth in the 1950&rsquos when I (and the booth) was quite young. I vividly remember that the Arc lamps were HUGE, you could just about crawl inside them. The projectors were Century’s according to my recollection. The Drive In was located off of Rt 303, within sight of the Palisades Interstate Parkway, and adjacent to the US Army Reserve Center.

While hiking in Buttermilk Falls County Park a couple of weeks ago, our group could clearly see the remains of a drive in that was right across the street from the park. This has to be the West Nyack theater that Tom Davis mentions? The screen is still up and you can see how the parking field radiates out from the screen. There&rsquos no marquee or anything on Route 303 so unless you climbed to the height that we did, you would not know it was there. Can anyone confirm this is the West Nyack Drive-in?

Never mind. I found it listed on this site. It&rsquos actually in Blauvelt. How could I ever think a movie theater could escape a mention on this site? My apologies. My God this site is thorough.

Above address is now incorrect. Now Organic Recycling, Inc. @ 121 New York 303. The entrance for this business is the same as the drive-in.

August 3rd, 1956 grand opening ad in photo section.

This was a huge single screen site, could&rsquove easily been twinned. Anyway it looks like the giant concession building still exists on the site.

According To The Journal News, The Route 303 Drive-In In Orangeburg Lasted For At Least 31 Years Until It Is Converted Into A Flea Market In 1987.

Its funny, I just noticed on the newest street view image they just removed the drive in wording on the road sign and hung a banner saying nursery.

Also opened with Walt Disney&rsquos &ldquoSardinia&rdquo. Closed in 1988. The snack bar is now used for a horticultural landscape center and the marquee used as a sign for the building. The rest of the site is now used as the town compost/recycling center.


Ver el vídeo: тест-драйв Renault 5 (Mayo 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Gael

    Lógico, estoy de acuerdo

  2. Annan

    Eso todavía no viene.

  3. Buadhachan

    Puedo sugerir ir al sitio, que tiene mucha información sobre este problema.

  4. Istu

    Entre nosotros, le pediría ayuda al moderador.

  5. Zulugor

    Se cumple, la frase admirable



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